Is it ethical to keep ignoring the potential of vitamin C to fight the virus?

By Jerome Burne

Everyone knows that vitamin C is supposed to help ward off colds and ‘flu, so it has been flying off the shelves of chemists and health food shops in recent weeks, pushing sales up five-fold.

At the same time, medical authorities continue to dismiss vitamin C as valueless against serious infections. The result is that there are currently no plans in the UK to use it as an emergency treatment or to run trials to establish whether it does work and if so, how best to use it.

This may be a big mistake. I have seen a letter for publication sent to two top medical journals that could have changed that decision, but they were rejected.  It was sent in mid-March by a world expert on vitamin C and respiratory viral infections and set out how the vitamin could benefit seriously infected patients. 

It confirmed the plausibility of the decision by Chinese doctors to try vitamin C as a treatment, which I wrote about it here. That trial was already public knowledge by the time the Lancet responded. 

The author of the letter was Professor Harri Hemilä of the Department of Public Health at the University of Helsinki, who has been researching the vitamin for over 40 years. He said that high doses could cut off 8% of the average time spent in an ICU and had published research showing it could cut time on a ventilator by 25%.

By that time the Italians had also picked up on vitamin C benefits and a large trial to treat 500 hospitalised patients with 10 grams of intravenous vitamin C plus conventional therapy was started. It’s run by Professor Corrao Salvatore, Director of Internal Medicine unit at the University of Palermo.

There is already evidence, he explains, that vitamin C can increase the production of infection-fighting natural killer cells, as well as damping down the damaging inflammation that comes with infection. It’s due to report next year.

Cutting time in intensive care

In the letter, Professor Harri wrote that to get a benefit once the infection had taken hold, would need 6 to 8 grams a day. He ended: ‘Vitamin C is a safe and inexpensive essential nutrient and therefore even small to moderate benefits could make its use worthwhile.’

If this letter had been published, it might have persuaded some intensive care physicians to look more closely at the potential of the vitamin. And maybe even run a quick pilot trial. There is no shortage of patients. 

Unfortunately, the Lancet’s reply indicated they didn’t think this information, endorsed by the Chinese Medical Association in Shanghai, was worth making public  ‘Weighing it up against other submissions we have under consideration,’ replied the Senior Editor ‘I am sorry to say that we are unable to accept it for publication.’ The BMJ also rejected it.

The vitamin can help with colds. What’s important is the dose.

It is hard to understand the reasoning behind this decision – authoritative evidence that a safe and cheap treatment might help in a crisis with few other options on the near horizon.Given that vitamin C is safe and inexpensive,’ Professor Hemilä said to me, ‘I do find it puzzling how difficult it is to open any discussions it.

He’s been assessing the evidence for the effectiveness of Vitamin C against viral infections for nearly 30 years. Back in 1992, he found it was better than a placebo against colds. Now he says it won’t stop you catching one, but if you do it’s likely to be shorter with less severe symptoms. What also showed up in the trials was the importance of the dose. The studies that gave the highest dose found that the time a cold lasted was nearly halved.

The Chinese doctors have built on Professor Hemilä’s work, treating the most severely infected patients with doses – 25 grams or more – that have very rarely been used in clinical practice. Their reasoning is that the vitamin increases production of the immune-boosting compound interferon and speeds up the production of virus-fighting T-cells. They have also begun a full-scale RCT, which is underway at Zhongnan Hospital in Wuhan University and registered with the central clinical trials database.

The head of the team, Dr Zhi Yong Pen, explains why. ‘Vitamin C plays a role in reducing the inflammatory response and preventing the common cold. …in addition, vitamin C deficiency is related to increased risk and severity of influenza infections.’

Vitamin C mystery: how does it boost oxygen levels?

The emerging picture of vitamin C’s multiple benefits for patients infected by the virus explains the benefit of a 25% reduction in the time ventilation is needed. The dose for this was between one and six grams.

This is hugely encouraging information for anyone involved in critical care – raising the possibility of significantly increasing the number of available beds almost at a stroke. It also highlights a puzzle about the benefits of vitamin C. 

Ventilators are needed because these patients can’t get enough oxygen; that’s what kills them. But how does vitamin C boost oxygen levels?  Curiously a clue comes from the old antimalarial drug hydroxychloroquine, which has suddenly been repurposed to treat the virus, thanks to President Trump’ intervention. 

The link is that it targets red blood cells, which carry oxygen because the malarial parasite infects them. The virus also infects them according to recent research, affecting oxygen supply. I explain vitamin C’s role below. 

So, there are teams in China, Finland, Italy and America, all experienced in using vitamin C in high doses to treat serious infections, who know about the multiple virus-fighting pathways the vitamin supports and have come to the conclusion it is worth investigating further. 

The UK medical authorities, however, continue to ignore all this. One effect of this has been to allow the various myths about vitamin C to flourish in the name of science.

The nutritionists who rely on vitamin C myths

The response of nutritional therapists’ professional organisation, BANT, to the Chinese research has been to announce that: ‘these trials are incomplete, and they are not in any way measuring potential relating to prevention.’ 

A recent item on Sky news relied on related vitamin C myths: ‘There is no evidence that taking vitamin C supplements could prevent or cure respiratory illness,’ a dietitian ‘and limited evidence it can even prevent the common cold.’ She refused to reveal her source.

She also relied on the myth about vitamin C producing expensive urine to reject the medicinal benefit of large doses: ‘We only needed 40 milligrams a day, which you can easily get from eating one large orange or a kiwi fruit’. 

It’s not a view shared by Dr Hemila who takes 1 to 2 grams of vitamin C a day to cut his risk of infection during the pandemic. A gram (1,000mg) is what you’d get from twenty oranges.

‘Vitamin C is water-soluble,’ the dietitian continued ‘so consuming more than the body needs will result in it being excreted in the urine’. 

Calming the cytokine storm

This shows a total lack of understanding of the physiology of vitamin C. When your body is stressed by, for example, a serious infection, vitamin C levels drop rapidly because the body is using it up to compensate for the complex effects of the stress.

Such patients are actually in a state of acute vitamin deficiency, so delivering high levels is perfectly logical. Evidence for this comes from Professor Paul Marik, an intensive care specialist at East Virginia Medical School in Norfolk Virginia. His recent paper summarises the vitamin’s virus-fighting abilities.  

He has also shown how vitamin C, combined in a cocktail with other drugs and supplements, can dramatically cut the death rate from sepsis – a big killer of patients with serious viral infections. Also known as a ‘cytokine storm’. it happens when your body launches an excessive and highly damaging immune response to the virus. He reports that 92% of patients given the cocktail survived whereas 40% of those getting normal care died.

Campaign to keep vitamin C in the cold

So given that there is clearly no shortage of evidence that vitamin C has impressive activity against viruses but a lack of proper trials, it is very odd that there seems to be a concerted campaign to keep vitamin C out of the picture and persuade the public that it is a busted flush. What’s not to like if it works?

Just as Professor Hemilä had his letter refused, so Professor Marik described to me the difficulty he had getting his work published. I know two very experienced health journalists who failed to get articles on this research into a paper they worked for regularly. Two national papers where I’m well-known also passed on an article about this. 

The nutritionist Patrick Holford, with whom I’ve written several books, posted an account of vitamin C’s antiviral properties on his Facebook page and stated that a randomised controlled trial of the vitamin was underway in China. All copy was arbitrarily removed and replaced with a sticker that read: ‘False information’.

 Undeterred Holford rapidly wrote a book called Flu Fighters, making the case for the effectiveness of vitamins and other supplements against viral infection, now available in Kindle on Amazon. A wealth of freely available supporting evidence can be found at

Drugs and vitamins not on a level playing field

A charitable explanation for this blocking of any coverage of vitamin C’s benefits is that without proper randomised trials showing it is an effective treatment, patients shouldn’t be exposed to claims that are still speculative. But such consideration is not extended to patients when it comes to drugs. 

For instance, an RCT with 270 patients has just started for a drug called remdesivir, at the Beijing Hospital. It has never been shown to be safe or indeed effective for any human disorders; it is active against viruses in a test tube and in animals. The rationale for the trial is that ‘there are scientific reasons to believe it could be safe and efficacious.’ Exactly the same goes for vitamin C, only it has already been shown to benefit humans.

 It looks very much like one rule for drugs and one for a cheap vitamin. Last week two other untried drugs were nodded through. They are the old anti-malarial drugs supported by Trump – chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. They got ‘emergency authorization’ from the FDA.  They are interesting, however, because they target red blood cells, which are also affected by the virus.  

How vitamin C can recover falling oxygen levels 

These cells are the key to understanding why falling oxygen levels are a sign of infection and why patients suffer from breathlessness. They also lead to an explanation of why very high dose vitamin C can help with this.  Anti-malarial drugs target red blood cells because that is where the parasite hides out while being taken round the body. Red blood cells are also the place that the virus infects once it has hijacked cells in the lungs. 

The connection with breathing difficulties comes because the job of red blood cells is to transport oxygen, which it does with the atom of iron it contains. The virus disables this mechanism by ejecting the iron, with the result that infected red blood cells become ghost transporters, unable to collect or deliver oxygen.  A detailed technical account of this process can be found here.

But falling oxygen isn’t the only problem the body is trying to handle. All the ejected iron is turning into damaging ‘oxidants’ which cause the inflammation that then overloads the immune system troops – natural T cells, natural killer cells and white blood cells (leucocytes). One result can be the excessive immune reaction or cytokine storm that Professor Marik has been treating effectively. Another is that immune response to the virus collapses. 

Vitamin C can help on all fronts because it is the body’s master controller of oxidant-driven inflammation, as well being able to boost production of the immune troops to take on the virus, which in turn slows the creation of ghost oxygen transporters. Why the vitamin can help cut ventilation time should now be clear. 

We are a long way from a daily orange here. Given the sacrifices the population are making and the astounding heroism of NHS staff, don’t medical authorities have a duty to try anything with plausible evidence it might help? 

 Can it be ethical to keep ignoring the possible benefits of vitamin C? And who is trying to stop us from finding out about them?

Jerome Burne

Jerome Burne

Jerome Burne is the editor of HealthInsightUK. He is an award-winning journalist who has been specialising in medicine and health for the last 10 years and now works mainly for the Daily Mail. His most recent book “The Hybrid Diet” was written with nutritionist Patrick Holford, published 2018. Award: 2015: Finalist for 'Blogger of the Year' Medical Journalists' Association.


  • I would like to correct one point. I am a UK GP working in Australia. Vitamin C is approved there to boost immunity and I regularly use 60g infusions. At our clinic we daily use up to 90g. There are many clinics in Australia offering Vitamin C infusions as part of treatment for various illnesses including acute viral infections. Happy to talk more about this

    Regards Dr Shirley Mcilvenny

    • Editorial

      Do you have any idea why UK doctors are so adamant that Vitamin C is both the devil’s work and useless whatever the data, while Australian ones seem far more relaxed. Especially since the sceptics lobby seems pretty active there. Hounding of Maryanne Demasi for doubting official truth about statins.

      • HI Patrick – I am a GP locum up in the North West and I can only surmise as to why the UK actually now appears to be the single worst country in the world to accept any nutritional aspects of medicine. I am a massive fan of the NHS but I think it creates some specific problems because it is so monolithic and essentially a monopoly for UK health care. Once upon a time when there was reasonable funding we were able to innovate – for example I used to run an NHS acupuncture clinic- but now funding so tight and workload so high we are running harder and harder to stay still. So there is no energy to innovate plus a culture that no longer allows free thought and free practice – hence pharmaceutical intervention has full control – to question this is seen as a betrayal of the beloved NHS.

    • Dr Shirley, I am encouraged beyond words, that you were able to administer IV- Vit C in Australia. – without being burnt at the Stake.
      Which side of the island, – East or South?
      Here in the West our State Health department is still chasing ‘ventilators’ and masks, but I’ve heard nothing about Vit C or plaquenil/zinc use.
      FYI, the supplement Quercetin also is a zinc ionophore, which is the main benefit of Plaquenil.

  • Also my husband and I, both GPs in our 60s, recently travelled through Lombardy in Italy during February and March 2020 without getting sick at all by taking regular oral Vitamin C, zinc and Vitamin D. We are now sitting out the pandemic in Greece in our campervan confident that we have done everything to protect ourselves with our supplements and obeying social isolation.
    Dr Shirley Mcilvenny

  • A couple of years ago I was visiting a hospital patient suffering from sepsis. The situation was serious. I asked the consultants to IV vitamin C as an adjunctive treatment according to the Marik protocol. They refused. I asked if they would start this treatment if the antibiotics failed and the patient was clearly dying. They said no! Every excuse under the sun was given, including no IV vitamin C in the pharmacy. I pointed them in the direction of Pabrinex, which is even indicated in severe, acute infection. The consultants still said no, but later infused thiamine, a component of Pabrinex.

    My experience is that hospital doctors will do anything and give every excuse not to infuse vitamin C, even if the patient is dying.

    • Editorial

      Yes UK doctors’ irrational fear of Vit C does seem deep seated. Doctors I know, who are not afraid of confessing they are well disposed to it, do say that whatever evidence you come up with, it has little chance of changing their minds. Fact that doctors generally know very little about nutrition and all the pathways foods and supplements activate, must be one factor, pharma funding for much of their further education could well be another. But is there something about medical culture that that puts vitamin C on the wrong side of the Pale?

  • Arrogant, ignorant “doctors” would rather see a patient die , than run the risk of them surviving with the use of high-dose IV vitamin C
    Personally, I reckon that EBM, – EGO Based Medicine is the primal driver of this idiocy. Indeed, “they” should jump at each and every moribund patient, as yet another “proof” that high-dose IV Vit C does NOT work…. by properly applying the protocol… Yet they won’t.

    Dr Marik faces the same opposition, regardless of results.

  • This is the same ‘tribe’ who’s ancestors were supportive of the building of a network of ‘Anti-drowning Stations’ along the Thames, equipped with the latest miracle (drowining) therapy, bellows to insulflate the anus with tobacco smoke.
    One can only wonder about any RC Trials conducted aforehand…
    Latterly, “they” killed patients with their ‘Six Weeks of TOTAL bedrest’ for heart attack survivors, and still fought bitterly against sensible change….

    Today, well, we can thank the persistence of a junior doctor, who had the temerity to question the White Coats.

    The same applies to the use of Vitamin C, or even the “trialling” for a very unwell patient.

    • Editorial

      Must be where the puzzling dismissal “blow it up your arse” comes from. What a great story!

  • What is it with Vitamin C? The Medics have resisted Vit C since it was first discovered that fresh citrus fruit and maritime pine bark extract (used by the North American Indians) cured Scurvy. Such tales were labelled as witchcraft or voodoo or at best plain nonsense. It took the medical establishment of the time 150 years to accept the fact and when eventually they did, fresh limes and lime juice was supplied to the British navy, which then went on to “rule the waves” as its sailors were much less prone to scurvy. (hence the term “Limeys” for British sailors)

    It’s not long now to the centenary of the discovery of Vit C in the 1930s and Dr Fred Klenner’s use of IV C in the 40s to CURE TB, polio and other serious infectious diseases . Will it be another 70 or 80 years before the medical establishment comes to its senses? Not if Big Pharma has its way!!

  • Thanks Jerome, beautifully written, also the technical part of vitamin C and oxygen. Last week I was reading that technical paper which was a struggle (with a pen and paper on other hand, otherwise I was not able to follow). Can I offer another subject of article – coronavirus and antibodies? On BBCH community there was lately discussion about it and there is discussion (at least in The Netherlands) on mild cases and almost non existent antibodies and severe and very high antibodies count. In a society which place so much importance on such a surrogate endpoint as antibodies, it is very important to know what we talk about.

  • Do you think some problems are due to the generic term of Vitamin C – to mean tablets or ascorbic acid? I am in my fourth week of the virus (hopefully the recovery week) and made an interesting (and possibly life-saving observation) during my cytokine storms. The first night I was taking Vitamin C tablets (2 – 3 g every hour). By 4am I thought I was dying – it felt as though everything was shutting down, and I was shaking with cold. I then started on ascorbic acid (2-3g per half hour). By about 10am my body had revived sufficiently for me to get up and take a walk in the garden. I continued taking the ascorbic acid and my next cytokine storm was ‘managed’. I took sufficient ascorbic acid to calm the storm, and even managed to sleep for four lots of 1 -2 hour stretches. The storm would wake me up and I’d take the ascorbic acid again until it calmed (in batches of 4g, repeating within 10 minutes if no change). Since then I’ve had two more major storms and two minor ones – all controlled with ascorbic acid. I am not into full recovery yet but the ascorbic acid is still getting me through.

  • Hi Rose – ascorbic acid, which is what vitamin C should be, does work better. It’s taken in via the stomach’s fast transporter system. I wonder if the other product was ascorbate, the buffered alkaline form, which is not so rapidly absorbed nor, in that form, such a potent antioxidant, which is what you need during a cytokine storm. The best way to use is an initial high dose – 2 to 10g, the higher in an extreme situation as you describe, to get an immediate high dose in, then 1 gram an hour. I’m so glad you are recovering. Zinc, 20-30mg, and melatonin, 1-5mg before bed, may enhance anti-inflammatory effects. Niacin, or NADH, help receycle ascorbic acid.

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  • A person contracting covid-19 begins with a moment of initial contagion when just a few individual copies of the corona virus gain ingress into just few of the victims cells. From that moment on the progression of the illness plays out as if like a drag race. Cells that have become hosts to virus begin churning out copies which then go on to infect even more cells which go into virus production and so on.

    The prognosis that follows is essentially a numbers game; more cells infected > means a bigger cytokine storm will ensue > means the symptoms will be more severe > means the patient is at increased risk of death. There exist points along the time-line of developments when the extent of histological contagion may become critical (thus rendering critical care highly expedient) and beyond which any further histological contagion may prove fatal.

    Anything that stands in the way of copies of the virus transgressing cell membranes is ‘good’. Anything that impedes a phagocyte in expediting its duty to arrest a copy of the virus when in free circulation is ‘bad’, and anything that hinders the production of newly minted and additional phagocytes to replace that phagocytes that sacrificed themselves in the line of duty and swell the numbers making up ‘the force’ is also ‘bad’.

    Facing up to a viral infection is a lot of extra work for the body to do. Aspects of the immune system have to start from behind while the virus and contagion are ‘racing up the strip’. Not only must these aspect get up to spread they have to catch up from behind and get ahead of the rampaging virus and above all do so before the degree of contagion becomes critical since any advance upon that is fatal. One simply does not want anything ‘gumming up the works’. It is an inescapable fact that extra work undertaken gives rise to extra oxidative stress consequentially with added numbers of ROS wreaking havoc. ROS are one phenomena that can ‘gum up the works.’

    And if a person who is infected is no longer eating in normal amounts and/or is not eating sufficiently antioxidant rich foods then the the biophysical process of defeating oxidative stress amounts to capacity outstripped by demand. Just as your article makes plain respecting the bodies need for adequate supply of antioxidants is a prudent step to take, and may de leverage the fatal advantage that the virus may have.

    Recently I became aware of interfacial water (IW), interfacaial water stress (IWS) and its life engendering properties, together with exogenous interfacial water stress (EIWS) and its ability to engender dysfunction upon life engendering processes. Just as is the cases with ROS one doesn’t, when cells are plagued by covid-19 contagion, want EIWS to be gumming up the works of the good work aspects of the immune system ought to be undertaking with exemplary efficiency.

    There is, as yet, no real proof that EIWS hinders the efficacy of aspects of immune function, but there does exist a scent trail. It should be borne in mind that there, as yet, exists absolutely no proof at all that EIWS does not hinder aspects of immune function.

    The scent trail that EIWS hinders the process by which replacement and additional phagocytes are ‘minted’ is strong. The scent trail suggests EIWS may hinder the ability of an individual phagocyte to arrest an individual phagocyte is reasonably strong too. The notion that EIWS may make it easier for individual copies of the virus to gain ingress into additional numbers of cells is a wild (if educated) guess on my part.

    Now would be a good time for persons in a position to to be encouraged to run a trial of a particular intervention within an ICU setting to discern if it may redress EIWS caused by a particular factor.

    To establish that the proposed intervention could have bearing upon EIWS, or even no bearing, would be a non-trivial experiment to devise and run, however to investigate whether the proposed intervention could reduce ICU death rates, or decrease the time they remain dependent upon ICU facilities would be very easy for the right persons to do.

    Does the kind of ‘isolation’ that the theory and habit of earthing are said to challenge give rise to EIWS? The evidence base is not yet up to resolving grounds for doubt however the scent trial is indicative that it does.

    Does EIWS figure prominently in the cause of hypertension? The evidence base (intervention and epidemiological) suggests so.

    Was Rudy Virchow correct about the part that shear stress may play in arterial disease? Yes, to a point, but he did not appreciate, in his times, that EIWS could result in the distinction between damaging levels of shear stress and next to none.

    Agreed, there does exist a lot about medical ignorance that is unethical, Jerome. The same can be said for journalism (in general, and present company excepted).

    Professional ignorance is rife among economists; so theirs is a highly unethical profession. If only people knew, and if economists could explain, how fiat currency messes up the world and ****s with peoples minds then peoples minds could be un****ed again, and the world could be un-messed-up by degree.

    • Editorial

      Christopher – i think you need to explain rather more fully what “interfacial water (IW), interfacaial water stress (IWS) and its life engendering properties” and how they fit the bilogy here

  • ‘Given that vitamin C is safe and inexpensive,’ Professor Hemilä said to me, ‘I do find it puzzling how difficult it is to open any discussions it.’

    I think the question answers itself. Because Vitamin C is safe and inexpensive! How are pharmaceutical manufacturers, hospitals, clinics and insurance companies to enrich themselves with something that is cheap and has no harmful side effects?

    • Editorial

      Indeed and a pandemic provokes a feeding frenzy for drug companies as the race is on for the antiviral and especially the vaccine which will conquor it. Not that i am against vaccines that come with proper safety/effectiveness trials and no inconvenient hidden data.

      The saga of a previous incarnation of the Cochrane Collaboration and Roche over the anti-viral drug tamiflu show the lengths companies will go to keep their product on the market.
      It is possible though that one of the effects of the current crisis will be to recognise that turning over the search for new treatments entirely to drug companies may not be wise. Already a few researchers are calling for the vital search for new antibiotics to be done by state or not-for-profit bodies becasue antibiotics are not very profitable and even though there are warnings of a return to a medical medical middle ages if we don’t get new ones, the companies refuse to do the research. Maybe it’s possible that such a ruthless eye on the bottome line will be shamed in to changing after the heroic altruism that the pandemic has producen in medical staff. Your optimistically..

    • I couldn’t help but agree with this comment. I well remember reading Professor John Yudkin’s excellent book (‘Pure, White and Deadly’ … since reprinted but also available on the internet as a free pdf). Yudkins assertion was that it was sugar (and not fat) that was a major contributing factor to ill health. This was in the 1950′s, however, the similarities are amazing: in Yudkin’s case, it was big Sugar (specifically Tate & Lyle) which wielded influence and prevented Professor Yudkin from gaining a research laboratory he had been granted on his retirement from Queen Elizabeth College (now University College London?),it was not coincidental that among the colleges board were members who were on the board of Tate & Lyle. Though it is some time since I read this book, I believe I am correct in saying that a member of the board from the above mentioned company, on the board of the university,who made it clear that future funding would be curtailed if Professor Yudkin was not sanctioned. In a similar vein, but not wishing to sound like a ‘conspiracy theorist’, it is not difficult to see the influence that big Pharma is having on the medicine. In particular one can draw parallels with Ancel Key’s infamous ‘Diet-Heart’ Hypothesis, which, but for the influence of Pharama, would have been relegated to the dustbin of (honest) but incorrect hypotheses which has long since passed its sell by date.
      Vitamin C cannot be patented, therefore there is no profit to be made by pharmaceutical companies.

      • Editorial

        Drug companies certaintly have the means to denigrate benefits of Vit C and the massive bucks behind vaccines and anti-virals provide the motive, but I think doctors’ ignorance of nutrition is also a factor.

        They are taught very little about it in med school, so of course they don’t know about it and so don’t rate as important the hugely complicated biochemical networks that run our metabolic, hormonal, immune, microbiome etc. systems, let alone have a grip on the minerals and vitamins that are needed for their working.

        Vitamin C, for instance, is a major player in our immune defences, damping down inflammation, disarming antioxidants and stimulating the production of neutrophils – the most common front-immune system troops – to mention a few. In fact, if you were looking to develop multi-targeted immune-boosting drug, it would look very similar to vitamin C. So claiming it doesn’t have an effect is simply ill-informed.

  • But big pharma will respond that trials have been done on vitamin C and that these trials have shown no effect. What I find extraordinary is that invariably, all such trials are designed to fail.

  • Of course they mu$t fail… Again, ask “Cui bono? / WHO Profits?”
    eg. Looking at adverse side effects in a HPV vaccine, the placebo arm was all the vaccines adjuvants etc. This obfuscated the side effects caused by said adjuvants / chemical extras.
    Or Plaquenil (HCQ) WITHOUT zinc, cf placebo of IV vitamin C. Designed to ‘fail’ both, and make a fictional future vaccine look like The Messiah.

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